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Early Michna history
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The Thirty Years War flared into a continental struggle when Fredrick V, elector Palatine, left Heidelberg late in 1619 to assume the crown of Bohemia. In the following summer Maximilian I of Bavaria sent the army of the Catholic League, 25,000 troops strong, under the Bavarian field marshall Count of Tilly into Bohemia.
The Bohemian forces, commanded by Christian I of Anhalt, fell back to defend their capital of Prague. West of Prague this Protestant army was joined by the troops of Bethlen Gabor (Gabriel Bethlen), Hungarian nobleman and adventurer. The combined forces encamped on the chalk hill of White Mountain, west of the walls of Prague.
On the morning of 8 November 1620, protected by a heavy mist and covered by an artillery bombardment, Tilly sent his Imperial army charging up the slope of the hill. The defenders, taken by surprise, reeled back with heavy losses, finally breaking altogether and fleeing the field. One third of Anhalt's 15,000-man force were killed or captured.
Fredrick, with his queen, Elizabeth, daughter of James I of England, fled Prague, thereby earning the title of "Winter King" for his short reign. Tilly's men entered the city without opposition, sacked it, and re-established Catholic domination. All Bohemia again fell under the rule of the Holy Roman Empire of Ferdinand II.
[Exerpts from An Encyclopedia of Battles by David Eggenberger, published by Dover Publications.]
This originaly Gothic castle was build according to the model of the French castel. From the 14th to the 17th century, the Sternberk family lived here. After the Battle on the White Mountain, Wallenstein moved in, and shortly after that followed by Pavel Michna of Vacínov (Wikipedia article in German, Czech). At the end of the Thirty Year's War, the Swedish army brought about big damage to the castle. When Jan Josef of Vrtba bought the chateau in 1716, he cared for the restorations in Baroque style.
The castle of Konopiště - Click on the right picture to enlarge it.
Archduke Francis Ferdinand bought Konopiště in 1887. His greatest hobby was hunting, of which the trophies are decorating the staircase. In 1914, the Austrian pretender to the throne was murdered with his Czech lady Sophie Chotek. This heralded the First Wold War.
Seine [Baschewi] Haupteinnahmen stammten vorwiegend aus der Beteiligung an der Münzpräge, deren Mitglied er war. Ihr unterstanden 1622-24 alle Münzstätten Böhmens, Mährens und auch Österreichs. Mehrere Adelige, die an der Münze beteiligt waren (Fürst Liechtenstein, Albrecht von Waldstein, Pavel Michna von Vacinov, der Bürger Johann de Witt, u.a.) verstrickten sich in Intrigen, in Betrügereien und Bestechungen. Folglich gingen die Münzstätten wieder unter die Verwaltung des Staates. In diesem Zusammenhang kam 1631 auch gegen Baschewi ein Haftbefehl heraus, der sich aber - rechtzeitig gewarnt - zu seinem Beschützer Albrecht von Waldstein, nach Jicin retten konnte, wo er am 2. Mai 1634 verstarb.
[Deutscher Name: Paul von Michna, Freiherr von Weizenhofen; Sohn: Graf Michna von Weizenhofen]
Dr. Raphael (12)
The Doctor in Law, Raphael Sobiehrd-Mnishovsky de Sebuzin & de Horstein, Czech lawyer and writer, was born in 1580 in Horsuv Tyn, in W. Bohemia. He studied in Prague with the Jesuits. At the age of 20 he became acquainted to Barthelemy Paprocky de Hlohol & de Paprocka Vule, exiled Polish writer, whom he helped with the composition of the Czech text of the latter's work 'Diadochus, or the succession of princes and kings in Bohemia' (appeared in Prague in 1602). Raphael completed the work himself with a dissertation about the cloisters and abbeys of the Bohemian kingdom.
After that, he continued his studies in Paris and Rome (13) and he became doctor in law abroad. At this time he changed his name from Sobiehrd to Mnisovsky.
After his return he became royal secretary to the famous diplomat and politician cardinal Melchior Klesl, who at that time was gouvernor in Austria. In this fuction he delivered important services as a political agent, during the war of Ferdinand II (then duke of Styria) with the Venetians. In return for his services he was appointed counsel to the government in Styria. At this time he was instructed to teach the young archduke (later emperor) Ferdinand III the Czech language.
For him he probably wrote the Latin work: "Constructio seu strues Tritemiana. Qui nullum unquam idiomatis bohemici calluit verbum, per eam in momento scribet convenienter bohemice quantum volet" (the manuscript is now in the library of the University of Uppsala, where it was transported by the Swedes during the 30-years war) (14).
During the troubled years of 1618-1620 he was employed by Ferdinand II for state affairs. On 1 January 1621 he obtained the title 'de Sebuzin', on 2 May 1622 he was installed as counsel in the royal appeals court of Prague "on the doctors' bench".
He was also sent to various towns in Moravia and in the Glatz County, as a commissioner of reformation, to force the protestant population to become catholic. In recompense the emperor gave him 4000 florins from the royal chamber, for which sum he was given the domain of Bulikov near Dacice in Moravia, which had been confiscated from Jean Dvorecky of Olbramovice.
In 1628 he was named secretary to the royal [aulique?] chancellery where he translated into Czech the ordinances, laws and patents concerning the kingdom of Bohemia and its incorporated territory. In 1635 he became royal procurator (15).
When the Saxon invasion was repelled, the imperial general Albert of Wallenstein, duke of Friedland named him meber of the "Friedland commission of confiscation", which was charged in 1632-1634 to punish the emigrants and those Czech nobles who had accompanied and helped the Saxons in their expedition into Bohemia. When, on 25 February 1634, Albert of Wallenstein, duke of Friedland, and his general Adam Erdman Trcka count of Lipa were murdered in Cheb, being suspected of high treason, Raphael was put in charge of the criminal process of both men, with the aim to justify the confiscation of their goods.
In 1637 he was named counsel in the royal appeals court of Prague "on the royal bench" and in 1640 he became vice-chamberlain of the cadastre of the noble countries in the Bohemian Kingdom.
Sobiehrd - Mnisovsky was an apt Latin poet who has composed 540 Latin poems, mostly epigrams. Shortly before his death he composed a funerary poem for himself: "Funebria Raphaelis - Mnissovsky de Sebuzin, quae sibi vivens adhuc valensque fecit", and had it printed with the instruction to distribute it at his funeral.
Apart from Bulikov he owned Lochkov, which he had bought from Venceslas Michna in 1637, two houses in Prague, vineyards near Prague and near Litomerice, end finally a farm at Vrsovice. All this was inherited by his wife Rozina de Hirsov and two daughters, one of which was married to Daniel Pachta de Rajov.
He died on 21 November 1644 and was buried in the St. Saviour church in the Jesuit college at the Clementinum in Prague.
… in the street Ke Karlovu is the America Villa, a remarkable building of K. Dientzenhofer which was used as a summer palace by the family Michna of Vacinov (Michna z Vacínova). Today it is the center of the Museum Antonín Dvorák. In the garden there are statues from the atelier of M. B. Braun. In the nearby street Na Bojisti there is the beer bar U Kalicha ("Zum Kelch") where writer Jaroslav Hasek (1883-1923) often made his "Good Schwejk soldier".
Copyright © 2010-2019 Hans-Georg Michna.
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